Add the yeast, 1/2 Tbsp sugar, and 1/2 cup of warm water to the bottom of the bowl of a stand mixer. Let it proof and get bubbly for 5 minutes.
After the yeast has proofed, add the remaining sugar, flour, baking powder and salt. Start mixing on low and gradually add in the water. The dough will be thick and shouldn't stick to the bowl at all. If you live in an extremely dry or humid climate, you may need to either add a little water or a little flour to get the right consistency.
Spray the pot of your Instant Pot with non stick spray. Turn on the Instant Pot to the NORMAL Yogurt setting. Place the dough inside and cover with a glass lid. Let it rise for 30 minutes. Once the 30 minutes is up, punch down the dough and remove it from the Instant Pot, then let it rest on the counter for 10 minutes. Alternatively, You can let it rise on a countertop for 1-2 hours or until it has doubled.
Preheat oven to 425°. Add about 5 inches of water to your Instant Pot liner and set the Instant Pot to saute HIGH. Cover with a lid and bring the water to a boil. Alternatively, you can bring a pot of water to boil on the stove.
Once the dough has been resting for 10 minutes, divide the dough into the number of bagels you want. You'll be able to make 6 regular sized bagels or 8 smaller bagels. After you've divided the dough, roll each portion into a tight ball.
Once all of the dough has been rolled into a ball, use your thumb and stab it through the center of the ball. Work the dough around your thumb until the hole in the middle is about 1 1/2 inches wide.
Drop the shaped dough into the boiling water and boil for 2-3 minutes on each side. Use the end of a wooden spoon to flip them. I can usually fit 3 or 4 bagels into the Instant Pot at once so I boil in two batches.
After the bagels have been boiled, place them onto a greased or silicone-lined cookie sheet. Brush the egg white onto the bagel.
Bake at 425° for 25-30 minutes or until golden brown. Cool completely and then go nuts over these delicious little guys!